Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version Authors: Philip Hubbard, PhD, Deborah Healey, PhD, Greg Kessler, PhD, Sharon Rajabi, MEd Contributing Developers: John Allan, MEd, Rob McBride, MEd, Matthias Sturm, MA, Ken Deeson, MEd Avenue Instructor Standards for Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Funded by: Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada Financé par: Immigration, Réfugiés et Citoyenneté Canada A PROJECT OF: www.newlanguage.ca

Funded by: Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada Financé par: Immigration, Réfugiés et Citoyenneté Canada Avenue Instructor Standards for Technology-Enhanced Language Learning © 2024 by New Language Solutions is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International This publication is also available electronically online on The Avenue – LearnIT2teach Project portal at Avenue.ca. PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE Except as otherwise specifically noted, the information in this publication may be reproduced, in part or in whole and by any means, without charge or further permission from New Language Solutions, provided that due diligence is exercised in ensuring the accuracy of the information reproduced, that New Language Solutions is identified as the source institution, and that the reproduction is not represented as an official version of the information reproduced, nor as having been made in affiliation with, or with the endorsement of, New Language Solutions. LAND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT New Language Solutions is based in Ottawa, Ontario. We acknowledge that our head office is on the traditional, unceded territory of the Algonquin Anishnaabeg People. Beyond Ottawa, we have staff working in locations across Canada. New Language Solutions is grateful to have the opportunity to work as a guest in communities and territories across the country, and we honour the stewardship of the many Indigenous peoples who have resided on these lands since time immemorial. We make our acknowledgement as a sign of respect for all Indigenous Peoples of Turtle Island, past and present. We accept the true impact of the past and the pain suffered by generations of Indigenous Peoples. As an agency that works to support the integration of newcomers into Canadian society and cultures, we resolve to support activities that are inclusive of Indigenous Peoples. We will make our best efforts to address a history of injustice to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples. We encourage our frontline staff and clients to discover whose traditional territories they live on and pause to reflect on the hospitality shown to us as guests in these territories. VERSION 1.0

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 1 NOTE FOR PROGRAM ADMINISTRATORS The Avenue Instructor Standards for Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL) incorporate the latest research and practices and are written in plain language. Every effort has been made to make them user-friendly and accessible to the adult ESL/FSL sector. While these standards are designed for language instructors, they can be helpful to program administrators as well. Instructors who are wellequipped to use technology effectively with their adult learners can create better course outcomes. Some of these standards are ongoing, such as those that encourage instructors to stay abreast of research and exemplary practice. Administrators can help create professional development opportunities for instructors to meet or exceed the standards. Administrators should also refer to the Avenue Program Standards for TELL and Avenue Learner Standards for TELL to find more guidance for their own actions. NOTE FOR TEACHER EDUCATORS The Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL target a sector that is populated largely by professional teachers with advanced degrees in TESL or a related field and in some cases many years of teaching experience. The standards are thus aimed at providing guidance for these teachers and the programs that employ them to improve their competence and confidence in integrating technology effectively in their online and blended language classes. It is meant to augment, not replace, whatever foundations of theory, research, and practice they may have received in their formal teacher education programs and subsequent professional development. Because these instructors have limited time available to accomplish this task, we have focused on producing standards that we believe are useful and achievable for most of them, along with support materials to connect to the realities of settlement language teaching. These standards provide a foundation for what should be an ongoing journey for language instructors in integrating technology in their careers. Teacher educators in master’s programs working with new teacher candidates over multiple semesters will be able to integrate technology throughout the graduate curriculum in a more robust and comprehensive manner than we can reasonably—and humanely—offer here. Those who provide professional development webinars and workshops can consider how these standards might fit into current and future offerings. We are grateful to teacher educators who offered feedback on earlier versions of these standards. A number of their suggestions have been incorporated in support and supplementary materials. The standards are being released with a CC-BY-NC license so that anyone can freely adapt and add to them as they see fit to meet the needs of their particular contexts.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 2 INTRODUCTION FOR INSTRUCTORS The purpose of the Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL is to provide guidance for effective technology-enhanced language teaching and learning for Canadian settlement language programs. The Standards support instructors as competent and reflective users of Avenue or similar platforms for their teaching. They also build instructors’ confidence in incorporating technology tools and resources from Avenue and beyond into their face-to-face, blended, and online language classes. Some concepts are evident across multiple standards and reinforce key connections. Importantly, the Standards aim to help instructors not only face the current situations in which they find themselves, but also prepare them for the uncertainties that lie in the future, such as artificial intelligence and generative AI. The Standards are not intended as another hurdle for instructors to overcome. Rather, they are a guide to aid instructors and their program administrators in delivering exemplary language learning experiences for learners. In this version document, we present the guiding philosophy and the seven instructor standards, each of which has a set of more detailed performance indicators (PIs) to provide clearer descriptions of what the standard entails. The PIs have a text that explains them, along with suggestions for reflecting on how they link to an instructor’s own teaching. We also include two or more “can-do” statements for each PI to help instructors determine whether they meet them. The full set of can-dos is listed in the Appendix. We will have a set of vignettes available soon to provide illustrations of how the standards and PIs can be realized in actual teaching situations. Guiding Philosophy This is the fundamental concept that sets the tone for approaching the technology standards. Implement the Technology Standards by engaging constantly in thoughtful consideration, healthy skepticism, and reflective practice, balanced by a willingness to suspend judgement and persist in the face of initial frustration. Be curious. Think about what might work; think about why it might not be a good choice. Try it and think about what did and don’t work. Give it more than one chance.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 3 STANDARDS AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Standard 1 is about using devices and systems skillfully. Understand and use personal and institutional devices, device system settings, and networks to support quality technology-enhanced language teaching and learning. PI 1.1. Be comfortable with technology in your settings: home, institutional, and mobile. With technology part of our daily lives, it’s worth spending a little time to understand it better. Being comfortable means being confident that the technology will serve you instead of the other way around. Knowing your passwords and being sure you have secure ones is one place to start. Being able to connect your computers, smartphones, and tablets to peripheral devices like printers, speakers, projectors, and so on through wires, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth is also a fundamental skill. Important data should be backed up, either physically on an external disk or thumb drive or online in the cloud. You should know how to get online and offline, and if online, whether you are on a wired, Wi-Fi, or cellular data connection, selecting whichever is the most appropriate for a given setting. Understand that everything from light switches and watches to your laptop or desktop may be a computer. Reflection: Think about the one or two devices you use the most. How well do you understand them, and what small steps could you take to understand them better? ☐ I am comfortable using my own devices on a daily basis and do not normally have to rely on others to help. ☐ I am proficient with at least one web browser (Chrome, Safari, Firefox, etc.) that I use regularly for connecting to websites. ☐ I am proficient with at least one search engine (Google, Bing, etc.) that I use regularly to locate information on the web. ☐ I know how to install and delete apps on my devices. The full set of can-dos is in listed in the Appendix. PI 1.2. Understand the primary features of the systems on devices you use and how to change them as needed. The key to using your smartphone, computer, or tablet effectively is to have a good understanding of its system (also called the operating system). A widely used icon for the parts of the system that you can control is the gear or toothed wheel app on iPhones, iPads, and Android phones and tablets. For Windows PCs, look for the settings app or type “settings” into the desktop search box. For Apple Macintoshes/MacBooks, under the top left “apple” menu you will find “System Settings.” For Chromebooks, click on the launch icon at the bottom left of the screen or just type “settings” into the Chrome search box.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 4 Reflection: Access the system controls on your favorite device—you can look online if you don’t know how to find them. If you don’t know what a control does, try it. What did you learn from this experience? ☐ I know how to operate the basic device controls, such as adjusting the display, adjusting the sound, and making wi-fi, data, and Bluetooth connections. ☐ I know how to locate the system settings menu on the devices I use for teaching and understand what the categories in that menu refer to. ☐ I know how to check to see if my system is up to date and update it as needed. PI 1.3. Be familiar with the vocabulary that describes the technology devices and systems you use. There is no end to technical terminology in the technology field, but it is useful to know a core set of useful vocabulary so that you can communicate about your system when needed. This may include technical words (e.g., bandwidth), commercial names (e.g., PowerPoint) or abbreviations (e.g., URL for “uniform resource locator”). For a list, try searching online for “basic computer terms.” Another useful strategy is simply to notice terms that appear regularly in your personal, social, or educational uses of technology that you aren’t sure about. If a term is something you see regularly, then it’s probably something you should know. Reflection: Think about relevant technical terms/abbreviations you have seen or heard recently but are not sure what they mean. What strategies could you use to understand and learn useful new terms when you encounter them? ☐ I understand most of the terms related to my devices that other instructors, learners, and tech support use. ☐ I know how to find definitions for relevant terms I am not familiar with. PI 1.4. Know how to organize applications and files (documents, spreadsheets, photos, etc.) so that they are easy to locate when needed. To work efficiently with technology, you need to know where your applications and files are located and where new ones go when they are added. Try to keep frequently used apps on your phone or tablet’s home screen if possible. For computers, the task bar typically at the bottom of the screen should include items for quick launching. Similarly, files like Word documents, spreadsheets, photos, and videos ought to be organized in logical and easy to find ways. Just as with paper documents, accurately labeled file folders save time and frustration. Take control over file locations to fit your work style rather than always relying on system defaults. It’s especially important to be aware of whether a file is on your device, in the cloud, or both. If you work with more than one device, there are advantages to synchronizing your data and applications across them.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 5 Reflection: Have a look at the files and folders on your computer’s desktop or the apps on your smartphone. Are there ways you could rearrange these to make your digital life easier? ☐ I am satisfied with how my files and apps are arranged. ☐ I know how to use the search function to find my files on my device and in the cloud. PI 1.5. Know how to look up information about your devices, systems, and networks. There is so much to know about your devices, systems, and networks that it is not realistic to expect you or even institutional technical support to know everything that might be needed. If you are searching for a specific question related to your technology, links to user forums may appear, and while these are not perfect, they often have clearer and more complete information than the help sites provided by the manufacturers. If you need to know how to set up something technological, YouTube is a great source for how-to videos. The web has a wealth of information from these and other sources, and of course the Avenue.ca site or other relevant ones may also help you find what you are looking for. Reflection: Think about something you would like to know about how your computer, tablet, or smartphone works. Where might you start looking for that information? ☐ I know how to use the help feature on my device to get information. ☐ I know how to search online for information about how to use my device. ☐ I know how to find useful videos to show me how to do things I want to with my device. PI 1.6. Be able to perform basic troubleshooting/problem-solving for devices and systems. Maybe your computer or your smartphone suddenly doesn’t work the way you expected it to. What happened? It could have lost its Internet connection, or it may have received a recent system update that either changed how it works or introduced a bug. Troubleshooting of common problems is an important skill to develop so that you can deal with such issues quickly and not let them interrupt your teaching. Often, simply restarting the device will fix the problem. Keep notes on what goes wrong and what you or someone else did to make it right. Be aware of any institutional support sites that can help and know how to contact your institutional tech support office when you can’t immediately handle the problem yourself. An online search for the problem (be as specific as possible) will take you to sources that can help you diagnose and repair an issue. These may include the producer’s website, online user forums, and even YouTube videos. If a problem arises during class, you may be able to tap into your learners’ knowledge and skills to support troubleshooting for you or for their classmates.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 6 Reflection: Think about a recent time when you had a technical issue with your device or with the network while teaching. What did you do? What did you learn from the experience in case the issue occurs again? How could you keep track of such incidents? ☐ I recognize that some problems can be fixed simply by restarting the device having issues. ☐ I have experience looking up solutions online to problems that arise and recognizing when I need to seek help from others. ☐ I keep track of problems I have had with my device or network and how they were fixed so that I can help myself and others in the future. Standard 2 is about digital tools and resources. Understand and use a basic set of relevant technology resources and tools for language teaching and continue to update and expand this set regularly. PI 2.1. Recognize that tools and resources can not only enhance but also diminish learning effectiveness depending on how they are used. We all know that technology alone does not teach. When you use technology in a class, the goal is usually to make learning effective, but besides effectiveness, you can also hope to improve learning efficiency, engagement, motivation, access, convenience, and so on. However, technology can sometimes focus on one of these at the expense of effectiveness, giving the illusion that learning is happening. A digital game, for instance, could be engaging and motivating but still not help the learner improve language proficiency. Captions on a video can improve comprehension but can also get in the way of building listening skills. However, both games and captions can be effective when used thoughtfully for specific purposes, with an eye on the goal of learning language. So, think critically about how you and your learners use these and other tools, and don’t rely on a given technology to do the work automatically. Reflection: Reflect on your current online or blended teaching environment--how is it making learning better? How is it impeding learning? What might you do about the latter? ☐ I am aware that technology may diminish learning effectiveness. ☐ I ask learners about their technology use for language learning to ensure that it is as accessible, convenient, and effective as possible. ☐ I focus on learner goals, objectives, and outcomes rather than the use of a particular technology. PI 2.2. Know how to use foundational tools for production and communication, especially those included by default with most devices.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 7 Tools for production and communication are everywhere and as a language teacher, it is good for you to have solid control of the ones you use. You are probably comfortable with a word processor and email program for basic purposes, but it is useful to know how to set up tables, insert graphics, and be able to use the range of review functions. If you have never tried this, open your word processor to a new document and click on as many of the menu items as you can find. Try them out and see if you can discover something new and useful for personal or teaching uses. For example, on MS-Word and other word processors, there is an Insert heading next to Home at the top—click on it and try inserting different items--you may be surprised at what’s there. Reflection: Explore the media player on your device or find one on a popular website like YouTube or TED.com. Find as many controls as you can and note any that are unfamiliar. What happens when you play with them? ☐ I am aware of the production tools, such as word-processors, and communication tools, such as email, available on my devices. ☐ I try out functions in these tools to better understand them. PI 2.3. Be able to perform basic troubleshooting/problem-solving for the tools you use. You can’t be expected to know how to fix everything, but there are some common problems with likely fixes that you should be aware of. Be familiar with how your audio and video settings work on the devices you use so that you are more likely to be able to anticipate problems and recover quickly. Test your setup before trying to connect with your learners. Make sure batteries are charged sufficiently. If a problem arises and you have time, try to fix the problem yourself by looking for solutions online—the time invested will improve your troubleshooting skills. Be aware that some apps work differently depending on the operating system (Mac OS, Windows, iOS, Android, Chrome) and that some websites operate differently in different browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc.). Finally, know how to contact your institutional tech support and learn from them how to fix it yourself. Reflection: Think about a problem you had with a specific app recently. What did you do, and what did you learn from the experience? How could you keep track of such incidents? ☐ I know how to adjust the settings of the tools I use for language teaching. ☐ I am aware that browsers and apps may behave differently on different devices. ☐ I try to solve problems that I encounter with language teaching tools by myself before I seek assistance from others. PI 2.4. Teach language with and through technology across a range of online, in person, and blended modes, recognizing the differences in effective practice for each.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 8 Information and communication technologies are a key part of education across fields but especially so in language teaching and learning. As many learned during the switch to emergency remote teaching (ERT) in 2020, classroom practices did not automatically transfer to the online context. For example, breakout rooms did not work the same way as pairs and small groups in class. Technology holds the potential to degrade teaching effectiveness if not used competently and confidently. Think about how best to apply your favorite classroom practices effectively in online and blended settings. Seek examples of new practices in all three domains and use your critical and reflective skills to gain control over them, adapted to your own context and teaching style. Provide guidance for your learners when asking them to try something new. Reflection: Think about a favorite classroom activity that did not work as well online. What do you think caused the problems? How could you use your understanding of technology to adapt the activity to improve the online experience of that activity? ☐ I am aware that there are various ways to communicate with learners and use different forms of communication as needed. ☐ I try out different ways of using technology when teaching in different modes. ☐ I model effective technology communication practices for learners in different modes. PI 2.5. Use Avenue or another learning management system if feasible to set up and manage an online or blended course. Avenue with its embedded Moodle learning management system (LMS) is a critical part of your toolbox as an online instructor. If you are not able to use Avenue, other LMSs are available. LMSs are important for keeping class records, making and grading assignments, and setting up the class syllabus with content and assignments. They can also be repositories for content that you can import into your course. In a blended course, an LMS is a place where all documents and assignments can reside, reducing the need for class handouts and physical papers from learners. Because it is a core application, you will want to be familiar with all that it has to offer. This includes both tools and resources for instruction and those for organizing learner records and course content. Just like the operating system and commonly used applications, it is worth taking the time to explore whatever LMS you have access to. Reflection: Think about Avenue or some other LMS that you use in your teaching. How well do you know the system so that you can skillfully take advantage of its features to make the online or blended experience better for you and your learners? ☐ I am aware of different functions in the LMS and how they may be used for online and blended lessons. ☐ I know how to set up online courses, including selecting appropriate content for my course. ☐ I know how to manage online and blended courses, such as monitoring student progress. PI 2.6. Evaluate technology tools and applications for their potential.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 9 Technology tools and applications can be an important part of the online teaching and learning experience. Evaluating the potential of a collaborative writing application like Google Docs, for example, starts with understanding things like how the individual tools for producing, editing, and commenting work, as well as being aware that a document’s history is accessible. Beyond that, though, it is important to see how those technical features can be applied to further the development of writing and other skills for your class. It is helpful to think of this in terms of two elements: teacher and learner fit. For teacher fit, the potential uses of the tool or application should integrate with your language teaching approach. For learner fit, the potential uses of the tool or application should meet the learning goals of the course and support styles your learners are familiar and comfortable with. Reflection: Think about your language teaching approach. What theories, beliefs, or principles guide how you teach and support your learners? How have you used these to inform the selection and implementation of digital tools and apps? ☐ I am aware that technology tools do not always fit well with teacher and learner needs. ☐ I know how to evaluate the learner fit of technology tools and applications. ☐ I try out technology tools to determine if they will provide a better fit than the tools I am already familiar with. PI 2.7. Seek to adapt tools and resources to meet teaching and learning needs. There are many tools and resources that have potential to support language learning but have not been designed to do so. However, they are not always ideal for meeting learning objectives without some adaptation by you or the learners. Existing lessons or activities from outside sources can be updated or be localized to have more impact on your learners. A longer YouTube video, for example, can be played directly from a specific point by capturing the URL with the desired time stamp instead of having to use the slider to try and find it. Reflection: Think about one of your favorite resources. How can you select and adapt items within that resource to better serve the needs of your learners? What additional skills might help you do this more easily? ☐ I know where to learn about new tools and resources for teaching and learning. ☐ I understand how to adapt new tools and resources to address my learners’ needs. PI 2.8. Carefully consider and implement artificial intelligence (AI) tools. AI has been incorporated into many educational tools, including automated writing evaluation. This trend will only continue. Generative AI such as ChatGPT has the potential to radically change learning and instruction. AI tools can create customized lesson plans, readings, dialogues, and more classroom material that teachers can quickly adapt and use. For learners, they can offer formative feedback on writing drafts and hold a “conversation.” AI tools can also generate essays, reports, and other classroom assignments based on Internet

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 10 information in seconds. The results can be prompted to include typical language learner errors, making plagiarism hard to see. Instructors will need to consider how to assign work that requires learners to edit and add to AI results, and how to ask learners to cite their use of AI. With ongoing support from their programs, instructors should examine how to use AI themselves and think carefully about how their learners should use AI, both as a tutor and as a tool for language learning. Reflection: How are you learning about AI in the classroom? What training and policies, if any, are in place at your institution? How can you adapt assignments so that they need learner input? ☐ I am aware that AI tools can be helpful for designing and delivering instruction and that they need to be used cautiously. ☐ I try out new AI tools to determine how they may be used in my courses. ☐ I ask my learners which AI tools they are using and how they may be beneficial. Standard 3 is about technology-enhanced pedagogy. Thoughtfully integrate technology in your teaching, informed by exemplary practice and relevant theory and research. PI 3.1. Seek out and make use of sources of exemplary practice. Videos that demonstrate exemplary practice with technology are available online. Think about reviewing these periodically to reinforce or gain ideas, especially in relation to introducing technology to learners, sequencing steps, modeling technology use, and helping learners consolidate ideas. Models can also demonstrate creating an environment in an online class that is as warm and welcoming as face-to-face. Peer observation can be another source of exemplary practice, especially when you share ideas and comments with your colleague afterward. Be curious; reflect; try. Reflection: Where have you found useful videos about technology-enhanced pedagogy for online or blended environments? ☐ I look for exemplary practices related to technology use from peers or in online sources, including Avenue. ☐ I incorporate exemplary practices related to technology use that I have learned online or from others into my classes. PI 3.2. Stay abreast of current theory and research related to technology use. Artificial intelligence (AI), especially related to ChatGPT, has new articles emerging now on research and classroom use. AI technology and its uses are evolving rapidly and will change teaching. Given these developments, AI is a good area to monitor carefully. Otherwise, research on technology use goes back decades, so someone has probably written about what you are trying to do. For example, computer games have been used and researched for a long

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 11 time, and there are valuable and practical insights from that research. It is always a good idea to check the publication date and source for accuracy and relevance. Avenue.ca includes an annotated bibliography at https://bib.learnit2teach.ca/ with links to directly relevant theoryinformed research that supports practice for the settlement sector. With resources of all kinds, be curious, read with an open mind and a critical eye, and consider just how applicable they can be in your context. Reflection: Where do you get your information about technology for language teaching and how does it inform your practice? What are some example sources you could share with a colleague? ☐ I pay attention to what is happening with technology use in teaching (including AI) by reading articles, watching videos, going to webinars and conference sessions, and/or hearing from others with expertise. ☐ I learn about relevant theory and research related to technology. ☐ I think about how I might apply the theory and research I’ve learned about to my teaching, or why it’s not a good fit. PI 3.3. Create technology-enhanced learning environments that provide multiple types of media and modes for learning. Learners respond better to a variety of media – audio, video, text, image - to build multiple channels in memory. Current communication channels also often involve mixed media. Keep in mind that some learners may have hidden disabilities that may be visual and aural, and learners may not tell you if they have problems hearing or seeing (colors, for example). Having individual, pair, and group work online lets those who are more social or more introverted find ways to feel comfortable. Reflection: How often do learners have multiple pathways to the content they are learning? How familiar are you with the options for adaptive technology: font, color, text-to-speech, and more? ☐ I use a variety of media when I’m presenting information to my learners. ☐ I know about adaptive technology for learners with visible or hidden disabilities, and I am proactive in designing digital material to address disabilities. ☐ I have learners work individually, in pairs, and in groups at different times when using technology. PI 3.4. Use technology-enhanced active learning and task-based approaches that incorporate authentic learner experiences. Learners should have something authentic and useful to do in every lesson, whether online, blended, or face-to-face. For example, learners can take photos with their phones to practice pronunciation, vocabulary, writing, and speaking. They can create an annotated map with their neighborhood, using their photos and Google Maps. That task might include adding narration about why some places are important in the map they share online. Take advantage of the wide range of lived experiences that adults have to build inclusive, motivating language learning tasks with technology.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 12 Reflection: Can learners see themselves in at least some of the digital material in your classroom? Do they see the activity in relation to their needs? ☐ I think about my learners’ contexts when creating technology-enhanced or online activities. ☐ I have learners incorporate their own lives and contexts in online or technology-enhanced task-based activities. ☐ I create technology-enhanced activities that encourage learners to get out of the classroom and gain or use real-world experience. PI 3.5. Use technology tasks to build creativity, reflection, and community. WebQuests with learner-driven group projects can encourage creativity and build on what learners bring to the classroom. Digital binders let learners reflect on their work and see progress. Apps like Flip (formerly Flipgrid) let learners share video and comments, and the Google Classroom suite provides platforms for real-time collaboration. When learners use guided peer review that focuses on praise rather than criticism, it can build community while encouraging formative self-assessment. It is important to work through the challenges and foster a welcoming, collaborative environment, especially in fully online classes. Reflection: How often do learners think about their own choices, how they learn, with whom, and why? What have you done to help them feel more welcome and be more focused and connected? ☐ I encourage learners to use technology in creative and collaborative tasks. ☐ I guide learners in reflecting on their choices about how they learn with technology. ☐ I ensure that everyone feels welcome and included, especially in fully online classes. PI 3.6 Identify, adapt, and create effective prompts for generative AI. Prompts are commands to the AI, serving as the heart of generative AI. A well-crafted prompt can produce the desired results quickly. For example, tell the AI, “You’re teaching English to adults at the intermediate level. Create a simple dialogue of about 16 lines between two friends who are talking about looking for a job that does not require much English. Do not use idiomatic expressions.” Poorly-crafted prompts will take several iterations to produce an appropriate response. Instructors should learn about the elements needed to create classroom materials or assessments that are appropriate to their learners from AI tools. More apps are emerging to help instructors craft prompts. Instructors who understand how prompts work can do a more effective job of evaluating prompt output.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 13 Reflection: How well do you understand how to evaluate AI prompts and their output? What training and tools could help you and your colleagues? ☐ I know where to find information about creating prompts or using a prompt-generating app for teaching purposes. ☐ I adapt prompts created by someone else or an app. ☐ I create effective prompts by providing the role for the AI, context (type of learner/setting), topic, format, and learner proficiency level or use a prompt-generating app to do so. Standard 4 is about digital literacy and digital citizenship for yourself and your learners. Be aware of and model the use of technology in safe, legal, ethical, and equitable ways. PI 4.1. Guide learners to make positive and socially responsible contributions online. In a blended, hybrid, or fully online class, learners are often expected to attend a synchronous session, engage in pair or group work, ask questions or present to their peers. This may be a frustrating experience if your learners do not participate as planned. You may be compensating by doing the speaking most of the time. To create a welcoming class, acknowledge early on that the dynamics in a Big Blue Button or Zoom session are different than in-person sessions. This can help address learner anxiety and inhibitions. For example, you could dedicate the first session to an orientation about how and why the dynamics in an online class are different. Encourage your learners to ask questions. Introduce guidelines around active participation, group or pair work, turn taking, and agreeing or disagreeing with peers respectfully in synchronous and asynchronous sessions. Incorporate in your daily plans multiple and varied opportunities for learners to ask questions and provide feedback. Reflection: Think of strategies and practices that you incorporate in your online sessions. What works and what doesn’t work? What would you do differently next time? ☐ I help learners understand how to be respectful and collaborative in synchronous or asynchronous online sessions. ☐ I encourage my learners – especially those who are quiet – to actively participate online. ☐ I revisit recurring issues that my learners experience to ensure that an online interaction feels as comfortable as an in-person one.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 14 PI 4.2. Know how to access and select safe resources online and share this knowledge with learners. Navigating online can be daunting and overwhelming for learners. They need to think about the key words to use in their search and which links are credible, relevant, and appropriate. They need to be able to avoid fraudulent ads and adverse links. Incorporating these topics in your planning promotes curiosity, critical thinking, and critical awareness as well as builds learners’ confidence when navigating online. Model safe use of websites for learning in your class; know what to look for and be aware of. Show and discuss the types of fraudulent websites including phishing scams and other fraud. You might discuss setting up an account (commercial or open source) and highlight whether payment or personal information is required. If resources are available for free, think about what is being asked in return. Reflection: Think about an example of a website of which you were suspicious. What steps did you take to ensure its validity? How would you incorporate this experience in a lesson? ☐ I encourage learners to turn Safe Search on and enable virus and spam detectors. ☐ I show and discuss types of false and fraudulent online information with my learners. ☐ I encourage learners to think about the personal information they are sharing and how it might be used. PI 4.3. Acknowledge learners’ ownership of their online work. Discuss the concept of authorship, ownership, and copyright with learners: whether it is a piece of writing, a contribution to a forum, a recording, or a response to a peer in the classroom or the wider community, learners should know that they are authoring a piece of work. Demonstrate crediting someone’s work by acknowledging their contribution orally and in writing. Have learners do the same in their next assignment. Explain the privacy concerns around copying, quoting, or referring to someone else’s work. Reflection: How do you acknowledge your learners’ contributions in class, online, or during a presentation? ☐ I explain to learners that the author of any work owns and holds copyright to their work, which means that learners hold copyright on their own work. ☐ I model crediting my learners and others for their contributions. ☐ I ask permission from my learners before sharing their work with colleagues and in presentations. PI 4.4. Learn about ethical use of technology and follow local, provincial, and national online privacy, copyright, and fair dealing regulations.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 15 Instructors generally have digital access to learners’ personal information through the learner registration and referral system in the workplace. Learners often sign up for various online accounts requiring them to submit personal and sensitive information. Learn about the privacy laws in Canada and your province. Provide multiple examples of how to protect sensitive information in your class. Explain how your learners’ personal information is protected by yourself as well as your workplace. As an example, explain that the class register has many identifiers such as full name, address, and date of birth and that you yourself always log off as soon as you are done with the roll call to protect learner data. Reflection: How familiar are you with your workplace copyright and privacy laws? How do they help protect your learners’ privacy? ☐ I understand the risks to learner privacy and take care to protect learner information online. ☐ I stay abreast of the relevant local, provincial, and federal regulations related to privacy and copyright and follow them. PI 4.5. Stay abreast of legal and ethical issues related to the use of artificial intelligence (AI) tools. Generative AI poses legal issues in several areas, including copyright, libel, privacy, and plagiarism. Questions are being raised about who owns the data that informs AI results, and who owns the results themselves. AI results can be factually incorrect. When incorrect results impugn a person’s reputation and those results are shared, there is a risk of libel. Generative AI is based on large datasets of text. When learners enter text into a prompt, such as an essay for writing feedback, that text becomes part of the dataset. This is a privacy risk if learners are including private personal information. AI tools can create “deepfakes,” using a person’s likeness to create fake images and video. This is a serious legal and ethical issue if the deepfakes are shared. AI is very good at completing assignments such as reports and essays. Instructors and programs should have guidelines in place for ethical use of AI tools, including citing the use of AI when submitting assignments. As AI becomes increasingly incorporated into digital tools of all kinds, instructors should be aware of when and how they and their learners are interacting with AI. Reflection: How are you staying abreast of AI tools and their uses? How are you guiding learners in using AI appropriately and safely? ☐ I understand that generative AI is constantly evolving and expanding into more areas and apps and will continue to present new opportunities and risks. ☐ I pay attention to legal and ethical issues in AI that could affect me and my learners, such as privacy, false information and images, and easy generation of essays, reports, and images. ☐ I provide clear guidelines to learners about how they should and should not use AI in class work. ☐ I incorporate artificial intelligence as a topic in my planning to address its safe use and copyright and privacy issues.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 16 PI 4.6. Model equitable practices by incorporating learners’ wealth of linguistic and cultural resources in technology use. Adult learners come from all walks of life bringing with them rich and diverse cultural and linguistic experiences. Tapping into these readily available assets enriches learning, exposes learners to relevant and diverse cultural experiences from around the world, and creates a level playing field for the learners to engage. Use learners as authentic resources when the opportunity presents itself. For example, acknowledge learners’ cultural backgrounds. Have learners make technology-enhanced presentations about a cultural celebration or an event, such as birthdays, weddings, or holidays, using family resources such as photos to strengthen what families offer. Reflection: How do learners’ cultural experiences address equity in your class? What kind of preparations are needed to make a cultural event a positive experience for your learners? ☐ I incorporate learners’ backgrounds and cultures in my planning for technology-enhanced discussions and activities whenever possible. ☐ I create technology-enhanced activities where all learners benefit from sharing languages and cultures with others. PI 4.7. Model online behaviors that show respect for diversity in opinion, identity, and cultural practices. Acknowledge your learners’ diverse backgrounds and engage them in healthy discussion. Model how diverse and opposing arguments or opinions can be presented through respectful conversations online and in person. Discuss contributions to forums in the course and elicit learners’ thoughts about whether they like/don’t like the comments and why; or if they find them valuable or appropriate. Explore the process for posting ideas and responding to other posts. Reflection: Do you go over a set of rules in preparation for a respectful class discussion? What strategies do you use when there is a communication breakdown? ☐ I recognize the diverse backgrounds and identities of my learners and ensure that everyone feels welcome and included, especially in fully online classes. ☐ I model ways that different or opposing views can be discussed respectfully online. ☐ I use the comments and replies posted by my learners to plan lessons on how to address issues related to inclusive, respectful, and responsible communication. Standard 5 is about using technology to help all learners thrive. Use technology thoughtfully to identify and address current and future needs of learners in ways that reflect diverse identities and contexts. PI 5.1. Be aware of the technology used by your learners and the contexts in which they use it.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 17 Learners today are using various technology tools, websites, and related resources in a variety of ways throughout the day. They are likely to engage in social media, where they may share personal details about their lives with online friends who have shared interests. This may involve creating media or mashups that they closely identify with and help them express their individual personality. Such practices can encourage learners to engage with others more extensively than they would in other contexts. Knowing the kinds of activities that learners are engaging in outside of class can help you create compelling customized experiences that offer opportunities for extended language practice. Observe learners as they use technology to better understand their language goals. Engage in ongoing dialogue with learners about their language goals. This can be done through various forms of technology as well as in person meetings. Reflection: Can the learner relate to the technologies that are being used in your classroom? Do they resemble the technologies learners are using on their own? ☐ I ask about and observe the devices and tools my learners use and how they use them, leveraging that familiarity for language learning purposes. ☐ I encourage learners to make creative use of the tools they know to support their learning goals. ☐ I help learners connect new tools and tasks to familiar ones to minimize confusion and frustration. PI 5.2. Be aware of and cultivate learners’ individual communicative and digital competencies. While learners are likely to have extensive experience with various technologies, each of them will be different based on the specific experiences and interests they have. Some learners may not be familiar with the kind of technologies that are designed specifically for language learning, while being more comfortable using social media platforms. Others may have extensive experience in the world of video games. Developing a sense of the technological background of learners can help you to recognize and play to their strengths while also assisting them with the areas in which they may need more development to succeed in their language learning goals. Observe learners to identify their competencies and engage in ongoing dialogue with learners about these competencies. Acknowledge individual differences among learners’ competencies. Reflection: Do learners recognize the ways that you design or adapt instruction for their personal competencies? ☐ I take steps to become aware of individual differences in my learners’ overall communicative and digital skills and knowledge. ☐ I make an effort to ensure that learners have the digital and communicative competence they need for a given technology-mediated task through training, connecting them with institutional or peer support, or offering alternatives that they can meet. ☐ I am familiar with the Avenue Learner Standards for TELL and help learners become aware of them and make progress toward meeting them.

Avenue Instructor Standards for TELL 02/05/24 version 18 PI 5.3. Leverage technology to design personalized learner-centered experiences. With an understanding of the ways in which individual learners use technology, begin to customize learning materials and experiences to better fit their interests, abilities, and needs. For example, a learner who is interested in video games can be encouraged to write about game experiences or environments as part of their language learning practice. They can also be encouraged to engage in more extended experiences like designing a game as a collaborative activity with other like-minded learners. Engage in ongoing dialogue with learners about their learning preferences and acknowledge learners’ individual identities. Support learners’ multilinguistic and multicultural selves and needs and help them understand and use technology to accommodate learners’ special needs. Talk with learners about available accommodations as appropriate. Create, adapt, and personalize learner experiences that support autonomy. Reflection: How well can you describe your learners’ individual identities, abilities, and preferences? ☐ I am aware of my learners’ interests, abilities, and needs so that I can adjust technology- enhanced assignments and tasks to better fit them. ☐ I use technology tools and resources to personalize learning experiences to make them a better fit for individual learners. ☐ I take into account individual student identities when designing learner-centered experiences. PI 5.4. Promote learner autonomy through technology-enhanced collaborative practices. Learner autonomy is best demonstrated by learners taking responsibility for their own learning. By engaging them in experiences that they find interesting and compelling, we can guide them to take a more active role in their own learning. This may involve encouraging them to seek out opportunities to engage in language practice with others outside of class or to target specific language weaknesses or challenges that they become aware of. An autonomous learner is a lifelong learner and always engaged in intentional and targeted self-improvement. Acknowledge learners’ individual strengths and encourage learners to recognize these strengths. Encourage learners to be responsible for their own learning and provide learners with opportunities to recognize how new technologies might help or hinder them in reaching their goals as they take control of their own learning. Reflection: Can your learners describe how their learning can benefit them in the future? Do they recognize how their own self-reflection can benefit them? ☐ I provide experiences to support developing learner autonomy, including training and monitoring rather than simply leaving them on their own in technology-mediated tasks. ☐ I provide opportunities for learners to discuss their individual and collaborative learning experiences online. ☐ I encourage learners to share their individual identities and experiences when contributing to group work with technology.